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Wireless

last updated: 08/01/20

Introduction

Song of this chapter: Roger Waters > Radio K.A.O.S. > Radio Waves

Wireless is quite self explaining: there is no wire, so the transfer of information or power normally passes using radio waves. Depending of the power or technique used short and long distances can be bridged.

The Internet of Things (IoT) or Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) would not happen without a bunch of performant wireless protocols. Billions of Things have to be connected to the (wired) Internet and doing this wirelessly facilitates the installation a great deal.

But there are also drawbacks using wireless communication. The communication can easily be disturbed, intercepted and the frequency channels are limited.

The magic of radio communication

Radio communication uses radio waves defined as electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 Hertz (Hz) and 300 Gigahertz (GHz), including microwaves.

They are part of the electromagnetic spectrum seen in ELEFU (alternating current).

Class Denomination Short Frequency Wavelength
------------------------- ------------------------ ----- --------- ---------
  Extremely high frequency EHF 300 GHz

30 GHz
1 mm

1 cm

Microwaves
Super high frequency SHF
3 GHz

1 dm
  Ultra high frequency UHF
300 MHz

1 m
  Very High frequency VHF
30 MHz

10 m
      and ------------------------ ----- --------- ---------
  High frequency HF 30 MHz

3 MHz
10 m

100 m
  Medium frequency MF
300 kHz

1 km
  Low frequency LF
30 kHz

10 km
Radio waves Very low frequency VLF
3 kHz

100 km
  ------------------------ ----- --------- ---------
  Ultra low frequency ULF 3 kHz

300 Hz
100 km

1 Mm
  Super low frequency SLF
30 Hz

10 Mm
  Extremly low frequency ELF
3 Hz

100 Mm

We know current and voltage. Voltage is the cause and the current is the effect. Voltage stands for an electric field. With a current flowing we get mandatory an magnetic field. Is the current changing (alternating voltage and current current) we get electromagnetic fields. These fields have the characteristic to leave a wire as electromagnetic wave.

How much of the electromagnetic energy leaves the wire (or stays as voltage and current) depends on the length of the wire and the frequency respectively the wavelength of the signal.

Let's refresh our knowledge:

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. The symbol is f and the unit is hertz Hz or s-1 (cycle per second).

The period T is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. It's unit is the second s.

And here a new one:

The wavelength λ is the spatial period of a periodic wave. It is the distance over which the wave's shape repeats. It's unit is the meter m.

The wavelength is the distance in space between e.g. two adjacent crests of the wave. It is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves.

radio communication

wave water

Photo by Linus Nylund on Unsplash

Radio waves are generated by a device called transmitter connected to an antenna. The antenna gets energy from a current and enables this energy to leave the wire and radiates the electromagnetic wave (radio wave). Another antenna connected to a radio receiver reconverts the received energy of the wave to a current. Antennas work in two directions like speaker for acoustic waves.

Devices integrating a transmitter and a receiver are called a transceiver.

radio communication

Radio waves are very widely used in modern technology, but the bandwidth must be shared by all the users. To prevent interferences, the emission of radio waves is strictly regulated by laws, coordinated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which allocates frequency bands in the radio spectrum for different uses.

"Just do it" Wireless 1:

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